2015中考英语语法总复习讲义专题三:代词(中考复习英语)

中学英语教学资源网英语论文中考复习指导 2015-07-22 手机版


中考对代词的考查主要为:人称代词,物主代词,反身代词,指示代词,疑问代词,不定代词,
一.人称代词:
单数 复数
主格 宾格 主格 宾格
第一人称 I me we us
第二人称 you you you you
第三人称 it/she/he it/her/him they them
1.主格作主语,宾格作表语或动词或介词的宾语.
He teaches _____(we) Chinese . / I’m waiting for you.(介词的宾语) / It’s me.(宾格做表语)
2.三种人称代词并列充当主语时时,顺序为:
单数:(二,三,一)——(You, she and I ) 复数:(一,二,三)——(we , you and they )
注::若把责任担,第一人称最当先,(即若做错事时,把第一人称放在最前面.)
eg: She and I have been to Beijing .(一般情况) Who broke the window ? I and Mike .(承担责任)
注:it 还有一些特别的用法。
1) 用在句型: “It seems that …”中.“看起来像。….”
2)用作形式主语,常用于 “It’s +adj +to do sth”句型中.“做什么事情怎么样” . QQ378459309制作
3) 用在句型: “It’s one’s turn to do sth”中.“轮到某人做sth”
4) 用在句型: “It’s time to do sth / for sth”中.“到了该做sth的时候”5) 用在句型: “It’s +adj +that 从句”中.
6) 用作形式宾语, 用来代替动词不定式.
主语+make /think /feel/find + it + adj (名词)+ to do sth . I find it difficult to remember these wors.
二.物主代词:物主代词分为形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词
第一人称 第二人称 第三人称
物主代词 单数 复数 单数 复数 单数 复数
形容词性 my our your your its/his/her their
名词性 mine ours yours yours its/his/hers theirs
1、形容词性物主代词作定语修饰名词,一般不单独使用. eg: My name is Tom.( 形容词性物主代词)
2、名词性物主代词,后面不能加名词,名词性物主代词常与of 连用
He is a friend of mine(我的一个朋友) eg:Our classroom is as big as ______(they) . / This is a friend of ______(my).
注: 1) 名词性物主代词=形容词性物主代词+ 名词(上题中mine=my friends)
2)形容词性物主代词与own 连用时,后面可跟名词也可不跟名词. My own house = a house of my own
三. 反身代词:“某某自己;亲自”
单数 复数
第一人称 myself ourselves
第二人称 yourself yourselves
第三人称 himself/herself/itself themselves
记忆小窍门: 反身代词有规律,第三人称宾格加self.其余都要物主加self,复数ves来把f 替.
反身代词的常用搭配:
enjoy oneself过得愉快 hurt oneself受伤 teach oneself = learn..by oneslf自学
help oneself to …随便吃/用 look after oneself leave sb by oneself 让某人独自留下
dress oneself某人自己穿衣服 improve oneself提高某人自己
四.指示代词
单数 this that
复数 these those
1、指示代词的用法:
(1)this /these
①指较近的事和人: This is my pen. / These are my books.
②指下文提到的事eg:Please remember this:No pains,no gains.
(2) that /those①指较远的事和人: That is her sister. / Those are her sisters.
②指上面刚提到的事情eg:He was ill.That’s why he didn’t go to school.
2. 注意 that / those 常用来代替前面出现的人或物,以避免重复. That代替可数名词的单数或不可数名词. Those 代替复数名词. The weather in Guangdong is hotter than _____ in Qinghai .
The books in that shop are cheaper than ___in this shop. A.this B.that C.one D.those
3.在电话用语中,this 代替自己,而that 代替对方.
eg:This is Tom speaking . 我是汤姆 Who is that ?你是谁?
五、疑问代词:(P93考点五)用来提出问题的代词称为疑问代词,通常位于句首,引出特殊疑问句。
如:who 作主语,表语,宾语但不能放介词后Who wants to go with me?
whom who的宾格形式,作宾语To whom are you talking?
whose who的所有格形式,作定语Whose wallet is this? 这是谁的钱包?
what 可询问职业What’s your father? He is a teacher.
who 可询问身份和姓名Who is the boy in red? He is Jim.
what 指不定数目中的那一个。“什么,哪一些,”无范围What would you like?
which “ 哪一个”指在一定范围内特指的人或物Which bike is yours? 哪辆自行车是你的
六.不定代词的区别.
1.one与it 的区别: One 代替同类事物中的一种. 而it代替上文中出现的某事物. This book is a good one . May I borrow it ?
2.some与any 的区别①一般情况下,some用于肯定句,any用于否定,疑问句,
He asked me for some paper , but I didn’t have any .
②但在疑问句中,若要表示说话人希望得到肯定的回答或表示请求、建议时应用some。此类句型常以could, would开头或what about /how about 的句中。 May I have some water ?( 希望得到肯定的回答)
3.many与much的区别
Many+可数名词的复数 ;Much+不可数名词,都相当于 a lot of +复数名词/不可数名词
注:a lot of 常不用于否定句中. 否定句中用many /much .
4.a few /few /a little /little 的区别
表否定(几乎没有) 表肯定(有一点)
修饰可数名词 few a few
修饰不可数名词 little a little
例题:His story is easy to read,there are _____ new words in it . Hurry up ! There is _____ time left .
5.each / every 的区别
★each 强调个体,表示两者或两者以上的人或物中的每一个.
every 强调整体,表示三者或三者以上的人或物中的每一个.
There are trees and frowers on _____ side of the street . / ____ student has read a story .
★:each 可以与of 连用, each of 作主语时,谓语动词用单数.
而every 不能与of 连用.只能放在名词前作定语. Each of us _______(study )hard .
6. no one 与none 的区别
no one 指人,表示没有人, 不能与of 连用, 谓语常用单数。
none of +复数名词/ 代词,作主语时,既指人又可指物,谓语常用单数。.
The boys were all tired , but _____ of them stopped to have a rest . .
7.both /neither /either /all / none / any 的区别
都 都不 任何一个
两者之间 both neither either
三者或三者以上 all none any
There are many trees on ____ side of the river . A. both B.any C.either D.all
注意:
1). both 的否定词是neither , all的否定词是none.
2).both of 作主语时,谓语动词用复数; neither of作主语时, 谓语动词用单数.
Neither of the answers ______(be) right . Both of my parents _______(be) workers.
3).词组
A) both …and …连接两个主语时,谓语动词用复数. 同义词组:
not only …but also … 反义词组: neither … nor …
Not only you but also she likes watching TV.= ____ you _____ she like watching TV .
B) either …or … 或者……或者…… , neither…nor… 既不……也不…… 连接两个主语时,谓语动词实行就近原则.
Neither you nor he ______ (be ) right .
One of Lily and Lucy is going to the park. = _____ Lily _____Lucy _____ going to the park.
C) either 也可用于否定句中的 “也” He doesn’t like the book,either.
4) how many /how much 的回答:用none回答.
Who 的回答:用no one 回答. ; What 的回答: 用nothing 回答.
How many students are there in the classroom ? __________.
Who can answer the question ? _______. A. None B.No one C.Nothing
8.other /the other /others /the others 的区别
单数 复数
泛指 another三者或三者上的另一个 others=other+名词复数
(别的人或物,但不是全部)
特指 one...the other
一个……另一个 the others=the other+名词复数
(其余所有的人或物)
注释: 1) one …the other …表示两者之间的一个…另一个……
2) some… others… 表示一些…… 另一些……
3) another 表示三者及三者以上的不确定数目中的另一个. 只能修饰可数名词的单数.
★ another +数字+ 复数名词= 数字+ more +复数名词
表示 “ 另外几个……”another ten teachers=ten more teachers
I have two brothers , one is a teacher , ______ is a worker .
Some are cleaning the classroom , ______ are sweeping the window
9.复合不定代词.
some any no every
thing something anything nothing everything
one someone anyone no one everyone
body somebody anybody nobody everybody

注: 1.复合不定代词作主语时, 谓语动词用单数. eg;Everything is ready.
2.形容词或else修饰复合不定代词时,形容词或else须放在复合不定代词后。:
I want to give you something different to eat.. / something else(其它的东西)
3.动词不定式修饰不定代词时, 动词不定式放在不定代词之后. Would you like something to eat?
4.复合不定代词用于反义疑问句中,
1)指人的不定代词, everybody,nobody,anyone, 其反义疑问句中的主语用he 或they . Everybody is here,aren’t they?
2)指物的不定代词, everything ,something,nothing等 其反义疑问句中的主语用 it .
Everything ______(begin ) to grow in spring , _______ _______ ?
5.any ,anything ,anyone, anyboby 也可用于肯定句中,表示 “任何……/任何物/任何人”
everyone 指每个,人人,大家 不与of 连用
every one 指每个人、物 可与of 连用
6、
Every one of us has seen the film . Everyone should do their best .

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