2015中考英语语法总复习讲义专题十:非谓语动词 (中考复习英语)

中学英语教学资源网英语论文中考复习指导 2015-07-22 手机版


(一)动词不定式
动词不定时的构成
不定时的基本形式为:to+动词原形,有时可以不用to,这里的to 是不定式符号,本身无词义,动词不定式的否定形式是not+(to+)动词原形。
动词不定式的句法功能
功能 例句 说明
主语 To speak English is not easy for us=It is not easy for us to speak English. 讲英语对我们来说不容易。 作主语用的不定式,常常用it作形式主语,而把不定式放在后面。
表语 My work is to clean the room everyday.=To clean the room every day is my work. 我的工作就是每天打扫这间屋子。 多数情况下,不定式作表语,可转换作为主语。
宾语 —What sports does he like to play?他喜欢做什么运动?—He likes to play basketball.他喜欢打篮球。 只能做某些动词的宾语,一般不作介词的宾语。
宾补 My mother made me play the piano all the time.
我妈妈让我一直弹钢琴。 在make,let,see,hear,watch等使役、感官动词后,不定式省略to。
定语 Have you got anything to say? 你有要说的吗? 不定式作定语,要放在所修饰词的后面。
状语 I'm sorry to trouble you.(表原因)很抱歉,给你添麻烦了。I went to the library to study English.(表目的) 不定式作状语,其逻辑主语要和句子的主语一致。
1.不定式作主语
动词不定式作主语时,常用it作形式主语,而将真正的主语放在句末更多资料QQ378459309制作:
其结构为:It+be+adj.(+ for/ of sb.)+动词不定式
如:To learn English well is useful.→ It is useful to learn English well.
It’s important for us to protect the environment.
注意:在kind,good,nice,clever等表示人的品质的形容词后,不用for而用of。如:
It's very kind of you to help me. 你帮助我真是太好啦。It's very clever of you to do like that.
2. 不定式作宾语
有些谓语动词后只能用不定式作宾语,常见的这类词是表示命令、打算或希望的,如:
would like, like, want, wish, hope, decide, plan, expect等。如:
Would you like to see a film this evening? 你今晚想去看电影吗?
②在find, think后跟不定式作宾语时,常用it代替,而将真正的宾语放在后面。如:
I find it easy to read English every day.
③常见的一些不带to的动词不定式Why not do..., Why don't you do..., had better(not)do..., would rather do,could/would/will you please(not)do...
I would rather stay in the room.我宁愿待在房间里。
3.不定式作宾语补足语
不定式作宾语补足语时与宾语有逻辑上的主谓关系。如:Lucy asked him to turn down the radio.
tell, ask, want, allow, get, would like, encourage后常跟动词不定式作宾语补足语。如:
My mother encourages me to learn Japanese. 我妈妈鼓励我学日语。
注意:还有一些使役动词和感官动词也用不定式作宾补,这时不定式要省略to。这些动词有:
一感(feel)、二听(hear, listen to)、三让(let, make, have)、四看(look at, see, watch, notice)。但变被动语态时,必须加上to。如: My friends were made to work the whole night by the boss. 老板让我的朋友们工作了一整夜。
4.不定式作定语
①不定式作定语时,应放在名词之后。它与名词有逻辑上的动宾关系。
②如果是不及物动词,且与所修饰的词之间有动宾关系,要在不定式后加上适当的介词。
There is nothing to worry about. 没有什么可担心的。
5.不定式常和疑问词what, which, when, where, how连用,相当于一个宾语从句。如:
The teacher is telling the students what to do. 老师正告诉学生们做什么。
He didn't know where to go. 他不知道去哪里。
(二)动名词
一、动名词的构成:动名词一般由“动词原形+ing”构成
二V-ing做主语、谓语动词用单数形式Eating too much is bad for your health.
三、动名词的句法功能
功能 例句 说明
动词宾语宾语
介词宾语 I like playing basketball very much.我非常喜欢打篮球。
Stamps are used for sending letters.邮票是被用来寄的。 表示一般的习惯或抽象行为或经常性的动作。
表语 His hobby is collecting stamps.=Collecting stamps is his hobby. 多数情况下,动名词作表语可转化成作主语。
定语 She is in the reading room.她在阅览室。
We should improve our teaching methods. 只表明它所修饰的词的用途、所属关系等置于所修饰词前。
注意:英语中有一些词后面常跟动名词作宾语。我们初中阶段常见的有:finish, mind, be worth, be busy, practice, have fun, have trouble/problem(in), spend...(in), feel like, be used to(习惯于), give up, keep on, consider, suggest, can't help。我们可按下面的顺口溜记忆这些词。
完成实践值得忙(finish, practice, be worth, be busy) 继续习惯别放弃(keep on, be used to, give up)
考虑建议不禁想(consider, suggest, can't help, feel like) 喜欢思念要介意(enjoy, miss, mind)
三.分词包括现在分词和过去分词
1.现在分词做定语、其逻辑主语就是它所修饰的词;Do you know the girl standing there?
过去分词做定语、其逻辑宾语就是它所修饰的词Please hand in the written exercises
2.现在分词做表语表示主语的性质特征。The situation is encouraging.
过去分词做表语表示某种状态。The boy is too frightened to move.
3.现在分词做宾语补足语表示主动关系。Don’t keep us waiting for a long time.
过去分词做宾语补足语表示被动关系。He will have his hair cut after school.
4.分词做状语、逻辑主语是句子的主语。The students went out of the room, talking and laughing.
Seen from the hill, our school looks more beautiful.
作状语:分词或分词短语可以作时间、原因、方式、结果、伴随等状语。如:
Being a student, I must study hard.作为一名学生,我必须努力学习。(原因状语)
He ran out of the room, shouting loudly.他大喊着从房间分阶段跑出来。(伴随状语)
5现在分词表示正在进行的动作,过去分词表示完成的动作。
如:fallen leaves 落叶(已落下)falling leaves 正在飘落的树叶
developing country 发展中国家developed country 发达国家
6.现在分词表示事物本身所具有的性质,意为“令人……的”;过去分词表达由外界引起人的内心活
动,意为“感到……的”。如:the exciting news 令人兴奋的消息 the excited look 激动的表情
常用的还有:interesting/interested, tiring/tired, boring/bored.
补充:当他们走进公园时,他们看见一些男孩在踢足球。(正在做)
Do you often see then play football?你常看他们踢足球吗?(全过程)
He speaks loudly to make himself heard clearly. 他大声说以便让别人听清他的话。(他的话被听)
易错点:1) stop doing/to do
stop to do 停止,中断做某事后去做另一件事。They stop to smoke a cigarette.  他们停下来,抽了根烟。
stop doing 停止做某事。I must stop smoking. 我必须戒烟了。
 2) forget doing/to do forget to do 忘记要去做某事(未做) forget doing 忘记做过某事(已做)
The light in the office is stil on. He forgot to turn it off.办公室的灯还在亮着它忘记关了(没有做关灯的动作)
He forgot turning the light off. 他忘记他已经关了灯了。    ( 已做过关灯的动作) 更多资料QQ378459309制作:
3) remember doing/to do
remember to do 记得去做某事  (未做)  remember doing 记得做过某事 (已做)
4)regret doing/to do
regret to do  对要做的事遗憾。(未做
I regret to have to do this, but I have no choice. 我很遗憾必须这样去做,我实在没有办法。
regret doing  对做过的事遗憾、后悔。  (已做)
I don't regret telling her what I thought. 我不为告诉她我的想法而后悔。
5 try doing/to do
 try to do  努力,企图做某事。You must try to be more careful. 你可要多加小心。
try doing  试验,试着做某事。 I tried gardening but didn't succeed. 我试着种果木花卉,但未成功。
6) go on doing/to do
go on to do 做了一件事后,接着做另一件事。
go on doing  继续做原来做的事。
After he had finished his maths,he went on to do his physics. 做完数学后,他接着去做物理。
8) be afraid doing/to do
be afraid to do 不敢,胆怯去做某事,是主观上的原因不去做,意为"怕";
be afraid of doing 担心出现doing的状况、结果。 doing 是客观上造成的,意为“生怕,恐怕”。
She was afraid to step further in grass because she was afraid of being bitten by a snake. 她生怕被蛇咬着,而不敢在草丛中再走一步。
She was afraid to wake her husband. 她不敢去叫醒她丈夫。She was afraid of waking her husband. 她生怕吵醒她丈夫
9) mean to doing/to do
mean to do打算、想I mean to go, but my father would not allow me to.我想去,但是我父亲不肯让我去。
mean doing 意味着To raise wage means increasing purchasing power.
感官动词 + doing/do
感官动词 (see, watch, observe, notice, look at, hear, listen to, smell, taste, feel) + do  表示动作的完整性,真实性;+doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性
I saw him work in the garden yesterday.昨天我看见他在花园里干活了。(强调"我看见了"这个事实)
I saw him working in the garden yesterday. 昨天我见他正在花园里干活。 (强调"我见他正干活"这个动作)
一些省略to的句型(1)Why not +动词原形
(2)Why don’t you+动词原形 (3)You’d better +动词原形
(4)You’d better not +动词原形 (5 ) Will you please +动词原形
(6)Will you please not +动词原形 (7)sb do nothing but(只是,只不过)
例: They didn nothing but complain
常见固定搭配1.too … to do The desk is too heavy to carry
2.be + adj + enough to do The room is big enough for 10 people to live in .
3.3.It’s time to do sth 或It’s time for sb to do sth .
It’s time to have a rest.
4.It takes sb some time to do sth . It takes me three days to finish the job
5.be + adj (glad . sorry .sure . happy . afraid等表情感的形容词后)+ to do sth .
(1) I’m sorry to trouble you .
介词+doing 1. look forward to doing sth (盼望) 2. pay attention to doing sth.(注意)
3.be used to doing sth. 习惯于) 4.prefer doing sth to doing sth.(更喜欢)
5.devote to doing sth (致力于 )

·小学语文课件下载
·小学语文视频下载
·小学语文备课中心
·小学语文试题下载
·小学语文教案下载
·小学数学试题下载
·小学数学课件下载




点此察看与本文相关的其它文章』『搜索相关课件


上一篇】【下一篇   【教师投稿】 
管理员微信:13958889955 QQ:8487054